Category Archives: Autumn 2017


New research from the University of Huddersfield Press

The University of Huddersfield Press was established in 2007 to provide an outlet for publication for University authors and to encourage new and aspiring authors to publish in their areas of subject expertise. Producing print books, open access eBooks and academic journals, the Press covers a wide range of subject areas providing a platform for innovative and interdisciplinary research at Huddersfield.

Keep up to date with new publications, plus events and competitions by following us on the University of Huddersfield Press blog, Facebook and Twitter.

Identity Papers: A Journal of British and Irish Studies


The University of Huddersfield’s Academy for British and Irish Studies was established in 2009, and Identity Papers develops out of its varied and interdisciplinary work. It seeks a wide and cross-disciplinary audience from inside and outside the university sector, and draws on robust research to communicate ideas connected with identities in Britain and Ireland, today and in the past, in a readable way. Centrally, it aims for ‘accessibility with rigour’.

This third issue of Identity Papers: A Journal of British and Irish Studies demonstrates some of the scholarly diversity for which we aim with this journal. Four longer articles take the reader from music of the medieval period, via nineteenth-century Bradford, to contemporary London and Brexit Britain. Via the disciplines of Politics, Music, History and Literature, readers of this issue experience four different, detailed and clearly explained insights into particular aspects of British life, culture and representation and the ways in which we try to understand them.

2017-2018 catalogue

UoH Press Catalogue Oct2017

The University Press now has a catalogue which covers all of its publications, including all books and journals. This can be accessed on its website.


Vice-Chancellor Professor Bob Cryan with John Parkinson, Angela Gallop and Mark Burns-Williamson (part of the advisory Group) at the Launch in March 2016

Inter-disciplinary approach to tackling global security challenges

Pictured above: (l-r) Vice-Chancellor Professor Bob Cryan with John Parkinson, Angela Gallop, Mark Burns-Williamson (part of the advisory Group) and Professor Rachel Armitage at the Launch in March 2016

Launched in March 2016, the Secure Societies Institute (SSI) represents a truly inter-disciplinary approach to addressing global security challenges including, but not limited to, terrorism, child sexual abuse and exploitation, cyber crime, modern slavery and human trafficking. The Institute has over 80 members. These are research active staff and postgraduate researchers from across each of the seven Schools at the University of Huddersfield who are conducting research that has some relevance to security. This includes topics as varied as ballistics, cyber crime, law forensic linguistics, criminology, policing, forensic podiatry and forensic science. The overall vision of the SSI is to be an innovative, internationally renowned institute dedicated to providing applied, practical evidence-based solutions to security challenges.

Advisory board of practitioners

The Institute is guided by an Advisory Board that includes practitioners with expertise in law, policing, youth crime and victimisation and forensic science; these include John Parkinson (OBE) – the former Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police, Mark Burns-Williamson – the Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire, Angela Gallop – CEO Forensic Access and Axiom International, Nick Barker – Barrister, Sue Berelowitz – Former Deputy Children’s Commissioner and Professor Ton Broeders  – Leiden University. Working closely with end-users ensures that the SSI’s research and outputs are applied and directly implementable.

Professor Rachel Armitage
Professor Rachel Armitage opening the SSI launch in March 2016

The Institute is directed by Rachel Armitage (Professor of Criminology) with Deputy Directors Professor Liam Blunt and Dr Stefano Vanin. A cross-School Management Team ensures that the focus is multi-disciplinary. Four Assistant Directors lead on key research themes – these are: Dr Simon Parkinson (Cyber-Crime), Professor Paul Thomas (Terrorism and Violent Extremism), Dr Anna Williams (Forensic Science and the Criminal Justice System) and Dr Maria Ioannou (Modern Slavery and Child Sexual Exploitation/Abuse).

“The Institute is about working more effectively as a University, sharing the knowledge that we already have, but also adding value to produce something exciting, innovative and truly inter-disciplinary,” Professor Rachel Armitage, Director Secure Societies Institute

The Institute is based within the 3M Buckley Innovation Centre; this gives the Institute a physical space that is not linked to one School. Professor Armitage is based there with SSI Research Fellows – Dr Dagmar Heinrich (Forensic Anthropology) and Dr Iffat Gheyas (Cyber-Crime).

Knowledge sharing

Members of the Institute can expect many benefits in terms of progressing their research – primarily an opportunity to meet regularly with other researchers with a common interest in crime and security. SSI hosts bi-monthly members’ themed workshops at which external practitioners are invited to present a particular security challenge, with members asked to consider applied solutions to that problem. Workshops have been held on topics including: serious sexual offences, terrorism and violent extremism and modern slavery. Members can also expect support in writing inter-disciplinary papers and bids.

To find out more about the research in this article, please contact Professor Rachel Armitage: You can also watch their latest video: SSI


Researchers (l-r) Professor Paul Thomas, Professor Michele Grossman, Kris Christmann and Dr Shamim Miah

Community reporting of violent extremism

Pictured above (l-r): Professor Paul Thomas, Professor Michele Grossman, Kris Christmann and Dr Shamim Miah

The first people to suspect or know about someone becoming involved in planning acts of terrorism, including involvement in overseas conflicts, will often be those closest to them.

While these friends, family and community insiders offer a first line of defence, very little is known about what it means to them to report the potential involvement of an “intimate” in violent extremism. This means that ‘intimates’ reporting is currently a critical blind spot in international attempts to counter violent extremism.

Community reporting thresholds

Professor Paul Thomas
Professor Paul Thomas

Paul Thomas, who is Professor of Youth and Policy at the University of Huddersfield, has researched a wide range of community issues, including the Prevent programme that is designed to halt extremism. Now, he and Visiting Professor Michele Grossman (Deakin University , Melbourne, Australia) have together headed a major new research project titled Community Reporting Thresholds. The research was funded by the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST) and intended to develop an earlier Australian study by Professor Grossman.

Logo box CMYK

The research team, which also included University of Huddersfield researchers Dr Shamim Miah and Kris Christmann, carried out a national series of in-depth interviews where interviewees from communities were taken through a series of scenarios based on real-life cases. They were asked what their feelings would be, what dilemmas they would face and what course of action they would take if they had information about a relative or friend involved in terrorism. The researchers also interviewed professional practitioners, including counter-terrorism police officers, Prevent coordinators based in local authorities and key workers from Muslim community organisations.

Community response


One key conclusion arising from the research is that reporting to the police is such a grave step that most community respondents would only do so after a staged process. First, they would attempt to dissuade their ‘intimate’, and also take counsel and guidance from family members, friends and trusted community leaders. Some younger respondents would also share concerns with lecturers or teachers. If those concerns needed escalating, the research showed that people want to report to the local police, not counter-terrorism specialists. They also wish to do so in person, so that they could assess how seriously their report was being taken and to enable discussion. This suggests that training all police personnel to respond appropriately would be beneficial to effective reporting. Telephone hotlines were not seen as appropriate for non-emergency concerns.

Supporting those who come forward

The project report makes a sequence of recommendations, such as the localisation and personalising of the reporting process and the development of support mechanisms for people who make reports. “It is important there is a response that’s more about welfare, safeguarding and counselling for both the person and the people doing the reporting,” Professor Paul Thomas. Officials from national and local government and policing organisations attended the research findings launch events and the team is now in discussions about how the findings can support improved policy and practice.

Following the launch of the UK project findings, the international dimension of the work expanded further when Professors Thomas and Grossman visited Ottawa at the invitation of the Canadian government to hold talks with officials, senior police officers and academics to discuss carrying out a similar research project in Canada. Colleagues in the USA are also taking a key interest in the findings, in recognition of the international importance of this topic.

Professor Anne Gregory pictured in the powerhouse of the micro hydro plant in Kedungrong Village. Left to right: Dr Gregoria Yudarwati, Professor Anne Gregory, Village Leader Mrs Suprihatin and Universitas Atma Jaya's Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences Ibu Ninik Sri Rejeki.

Communication expertise helping isolated communities in Indonesia

Poor levels of communication can mean that isolated villages in Indonesia are failing to utilise sustainable technology such as micro hydro and solar power, installed by their government and designed to transform their economic fortunes.

Professor of Corporate Communications Anne Gregory is helping the Indonesian Government in its efforts to help rural villages to adopt and exploit renewable energy technology for the benefit of their communities. The task in hand is not just about technical solutions, but about communication.

The research, funded by the British Council, focusses on Indonesia, but the solutions that emerge will be relevant to all developing countries. The project is already being cited as a valuable case study in the field of science communication.

Professor Gregory holds the Chair of Corporate Communication at the University of Huddersfield Business School. For this project she is collaborating with a team headed by Dr Gregoria Yudarwati, who is Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences Universitas Atma Jaya, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The government in Indonesia has a policy of encouraging rural communities to use sustainable energy resources such as solar, micro hydro and biogas, rather than relying on centrally-generated electricity, which can be intermittent or not available at all.

A communication issue

Anne Gregory 2

Professor Gregory and her co-researchers are working with several Indonesian villages where the sustainable technology is now in place. Getting the communities to adopt and exploit the technology is the problem – and that’s a communication issue.

“A scientist can go in and say this is how the technology works and we’ll train you mechanically, but nobody talks to the people about the potential of it in a way that makes sense to the community,” said Professor Gregory.

Therefore, the British Council grant was awarded to help with the communication issues around the adoption of sustainable technology in rural Indonesia. Fieldwork and research are ongoing – Professor Gregory and her University of Huddersfield colleague Dr Johanna Fawkes have paid visits to Indonesia and met local communities and government officials – and the output will be a highly-practical communication blueprint.

Appreciative Inquiry

Professor Gregory and her collaborators are using an approach named “Appreciative Inquiry”. “It is about trying to get people to imagine the future. For example, what could happen in the community if the lights were on in the school after dark; if you had a workshop with reliable energy 24 hours a day or if the women, instead of having to wash clothes by hand, had a communal launderette. We can then work through what needs to happen to make those dreams a reality. By taking ownership of the potential of the technology we can encourage them to adopt and exploit it fully. From there we can identify who they need to talk to, when, on what and why and who needs to talk with them. So for example, they need to talk to local government about maintenance costs, to technical people about the electrical capacity they need, to village groups about development priorities and so on.”

The aim is to map what their communication needs are and create a blueprint, which, when it is finalised, can be piloted throughout Indonesia.  It should also have relevance to other parts of the developing world.

The British Council is impressed by the progress so far and when it recently held a science journalism workshop in Surabaya, Indonesia, the University of Huddersfield project was used as case study for one of the sessions. The event, intended to improve standards of science and technology communication, was a prestigious one, with participants who included selected journalists and ten researchers who had received coveted backing from the British Council’s Newton Fund.


Wildlife crimes on trial

One particular problem that is raised regularly by those working to stop the illegal trade in endangered species is sentencing. It is widely held that sentences for such offences in many countries, including the UK, are too lenient. The principles of deterrence require that sentences are certain, swiftly dispensed and severe (enough). Prosecutions for such offences remain rare, so deterrence is already difficult to achieve.

Sentencing illegal wildlife trade


In 2014, Melanie Flynn, Senior Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Huddersfield, was commissioned by the World Wildlife Fund UK (WWF-UK) to undertake a research project looking at the state of sentencing for illegal wildlife trade (IWT) in England and Wales, with a particular focus on sentencing guidelines. The research, which was completed over 2014 and early 2015, involved a review of the literature, an analysis of data on wildlife trade prosecutions (provided by TRAFFIC), interviews with Crown Prosecution Service prosecutors (listed as wildlife and heritage crime specialists) and an ‘experts workshop’.

The research concluded that sentencing in England and Wales for IWT is inconsistent, lenient and dispensed within a system involving prosecutors and sentencers that have little (if any) experience of such crimes. As few cases appear before the courts, there is no opportunity to build up a body of knowledge and there is little precedent (previous decisions of higher courts) on which to draw. Unlike many other offences, IWT is not subject to sentencing guidelines. Given the findings of the research, Melanie strongly believes that such guidelines are necessary if sentencing IWT offences is to be improved, and have any deterrent effect.

Introducing sentencing guidelines


The research findings and subsequent report supported the view that WWF-UK should continue to advocate for the introduction of sentencing guidelines, and arguments were presented in support of this. In addition, drawing on existing guidelines and the experts’ workshop, Melanie highlighted the types of issues that should be considered in any future guidelines, including those relating to a more appropriate assessment of the harm caused by such offences.

Representatives of WWF-UK have met with the Sentencing Council, however at this time the Council still holds the view that IWT offences should be dealt with on a case-by-case basis and confirmed they have no current plans to introduce guidelines.

Photo credit: WWF-Malaysia
Photo credit: WWF-Malaysia

However, as a result of this research, in May 2017 Melanie was invited by WWF-Malaysia to Kota Kinabalu (Malaysian Borneo) to attend a meeting of the Judiciary of Sabah and Sarawak as an expert advisor. Melanie was the lead presenter and also helped to facilitate a workshop and feedback session. The meeting concluded with a commitment from the judiciary that they would establish a committee to introduce sentencing guidelines for their environmental courts, in a form compatible with their legal system.

Melanie remains in contact with WWF-UK and WWF-Malaysia and has agreed to provide further expert input as the guidelines are developed. Next year she intends to produce a revised version of the research for academic publication, again highlighting the importance of appropriate sentencing and the benefits of sentencing guidelines.

The research report can be found here: Sentencing Wildlife Trade Offences in England and Wales: Consistency, Appropriateness and the Role of Sentencing Guidelines